Abqaiq, which is located at the southern end of the Abqaiq oil field about 25 miles west of the Arabian Gulf, is an oil town, lying on the main road from Riyadh to Dhahran. The population is largely composed of those working for Saudi Aramco.

Following the discovery of the oil field in 1940, the population of Abqaiq grew rapidly. In 1995, the population was around 10,000.

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